Accumulo 2.x Documentation >> Administration >> Scan Executors
Accumulo scans operate by repeatedly fetching batches of data from a tablet server. On the tablet server side, a thread pool fetches batches. In Java threads pools are called executors. By default, a single executor per tablet server handles all scans in FIFO order. For some workloads, the single FIFO executor is suboptimal. For example, consider many unimportant scans reading lots of data mixed with a few important scans reading small amounts of data. The long scans noticeably increase the latency of the short scans. Accumulo offers two mechanisms to help improve situations like this: multiple scan executors and per executor prioritizers. Additional scan executors can give tables dedicated resources. For each scan executor, an optional prioritizer can reorder queued work.
Configuring and using Scan Executors
By default, Accumulo sets
creates the default scan executor. To configure additional scan executors,
chose a unique name and configure tserver.scan.executors.*. Setting
the following causes each tablet server to create a scan executor with the
Optionally, some of the following can be set. The
determines thread priority. The
prioritizer settings specifies a class that
orders pending work.
tserver.scan.executors.<name>.priority=<number 1 to 10> tserver.scan.executors.<name>.prioritizer=<class name> tserver.scan.executors.<name>.prioritizer.opts.<key>=<value>
After creating an executor, configure table.scan.dispatcher to use it. A dispatcher is Java subclass of ScanDispatcher that decides which scan executor should service a table. Set the following table property to configure a dispatcher.
Scan dispatcher options can be set with properties like the following.
The default value for
table.scan.dispatcher is SimpleScanDispatcher.
SimpleScanDispatcher supports an
executor option for choosing a scan
executor. If this option is not set, then SimpleScanDispatcher will dispatch
to the scan executor named
To to tie everything together, consider the following use case.
- Create tables named LOW1 and LOW2 using a scan executor with a single thread.
- Create a table named HIGH with a dedicated scan executor with 8 threads.
- Create tables named NORM1 and NORM2 using the default scan executor.
- Set the default executor to 4 threads.
The following shell commands implement this use case.
createtable LOW1 createtable LOW2 createtable HIGH createtable NORM1 createtable NORM2 config -s tserver.scan.executors.default.threads=4 config -s tserver.scan.executors.low.threads=1 config -s tserver.scan.executors.high.threads=8
Tablet servers should be restarted after configuring scan executors, then tables can be configured.
config -t LOW1 -s table.scan.dispatcher=org.apache.accumulo.core.spi.scan.SimpleScanDispatcher config -t LOW1 -s table.scan.dispatcher.opts.executor=low config -t LOW2 -s table.scan.dispatcher=org.apache.accumulo.core.spi.scan.SimpleScanDispatcher config -t LOW2 -s table.scan.dispatcher.opts.executor=low config -t HIGH -s table.scan.dispatcher=org.apache.accumulo.core.spi.scan.SimpleScanDispatcher config -t HIGH -s table.scan.dispatcher.opts.executor=high
While not necessary because its the default, it is safer to also set
for each table. This ensures things work as expected in the case where
table.scan.dispatcher was set at the system or namespace level.
Configuring and using Scan Prioritizers.
When all scan executor threads are busy, incoming work is queued. By
default this queue has a FIFO order. A ScanPrioritizer can be configured to
reorder the queue. Accumulo ships with the IdleRatioScanPrioritizer which
orders the queue by the ratio of run time to idle time. For example, a scan
with a run time of 50ms and an idle time of 200ms would have a ratio of .25.
If .25 were the lowest ratio on the queue, then it would be the next in line.
The following configures the IdleRatioScanPrioritizer for the
Using the IdleRatioScanPrioritizer in a test with 50 long running scans and 5 threads repeatedly doing small random lookups made a significant difference. In this test the average lookup time for the 5 threads went from 250ms to 5 ms.
Providing hints from the client side.
Scanners can provide hints to ScanDispatchers and ScanPriotizers by calling
setExecutionHints on the Scanner. What, if anything, is done with these
hints depends on what is configured for the table and system. Accumulo’s
default configuration ignores hints. The following shell commands make it
possible to choose an executor and set priorities from a scanner for the
config -s tserver.scan.executors.special.threads=8 config -s tserver.scan.executors.special.prioritizer=org.apache.accumulo.core.spi.scan.HintScanPrioritizer config -s tserver.scan.executors.special.prioritizer.opts.priority.alpha=1 config -s tserver.scan.executors.special.prioritizer.opts.priority.gamma=3 createtable tex config -t tex -s table.scan.dispatcher=org.apache.accumulo.core.spi.scan.SimpleScanDispatcher config -t tex -s table.scan.dispatcher.opts.executor.alpha=special config -t tex -s table.scan.dispatcher.opts.executor.gamma=special
The HintScanPrioritizer honors
hints of the form
scan_type=<type> to prioritize
scans, with lower integers resulting in a higher priority. When a hint
specifies a scan type it is mapped to a priority based on the prioritizer
SimpleScanDispatcher, which is the default dispatcher, supports
executor.<type>=<executor> options. When a scanner sets a hint of the form
scan_type=<type> it will use the executor configured for that type.
After restarting tservers, the following command will start a scan that uses
special with a priority of 3. The scan dispatcher maps the scan
gamma to the executor
special. The prioritizer maps the scan type
gamma to a priority of 3.
scan -t tex --execution-hints scan_type=gamma
The following command will start a scan that uses the executor
special with a
priority of 1.
scan -t tex --execution-hints scan_type=alpha